Fault injection - a vital technology for evaluation of safety critical systems.
This paper presents a nice overview of what kind of techniques for fault injection exist and where to look for more information on them. It also lists example tools for each class of the technique that the paper discusses.
In ISO 26262 this fault injection is important as it allows to test the safety mechanisms themselves. Even though in theory this is a simple task, in reality it is far for trivial to observe how the safety mechanisms, e.g. sandboxes, work when something gets faulty. One could do a lot of testing, but the most important part is to see whether the runtime mechanisms handle the situations in software that could cause hazards. Fault injection is also required for higher ASIL levels I chapter 6 of the standard.